The History of Afghanistan

and its Cultural Heritage

Afghanistan is the quintessential “crossroads of cultures”  where the civilizations, of nearly all of the continent of Asia, have interacted over the millenia in a constant shifting mixture of trade, emulation, migration, imperial formations, and periodic conflicts. This complex history of exchanges has resulted in some of the most significant archaeological, artistic, architectural, and textual treasures in the world

The Bactrian Bronze Age and the eras following the conquests of Alexander the Great, with a special focus on the sites of Aï Khanum, Begram, and Tillya Tepe, all are part of the great civilization of Afghanistan and the pride of its brave people.

These contributions— in response to the reappearance of the magnificent hidden treasures from Afghanistan and their exhibition— have shed new light on the significance of these works and have reinvigorated the discussion of the arts and culture of Central Asia.

Ustad Mir Ghulam Mohammad Ghobar, a famous Afghan historian, wrote in his book, Afghanistan in the Path of History, that in 1951, an American Archaeologist, by the name of Dr. Louis Dupree, had excavated land in the archaeological site of Mundigak in Afghanistan and discovered that the people who lived there thousands of years ago were avid villagers 

that used raw clay bricks to build their homes and spent their time farming and raising livestock, such as goats and sheeps. It was also revealed th`at food grain cultivation and animal domestication originated from that region. Then again, in 1965, during another excavation in Afghanistan, he had discovered items such as bronze mirrors, bracelets, weapons, rings with a lapis lazuli gemstone and several other items. He concluded that the artifacts date back all the way to 3000-9000 BCE, but believed they could go as far back as 20,000 BCE. [1]

The culture of Afghanistan has persisted for over three millennia, tracing record to at least to the time of the Achaemenid Empire, which was in 500 BCE. Bactria – the wider region around Balkh – was among the conquests of Alexander the Great, who left a lasting mark on the territory and its culture.

The ancient city of Balkh what is now northern Afghanistan, sat along one of the routes of the Silk Road. Balkh was one of the great trading posts of the region and served as a political and religious center for millennia. According to sources, Balkh is where the Zoroaster, also known as Zarathustra, first preached the religion that would become Zoroastrianism.

Hellenic culture took root in the region, with the Greek language, script, and iconography, including on the coins of Greco-Bactrian rulers. The coins of Agathocles, who ruled in the second century BCE, combined Greek and South Asian imagery and writing, placing Buddhist and Hindu figures on the front of many coins. This fusion of cultures spread southeast to Gandhara, the historic region that straddles modern-day Afghanistan and part of Pakistan.

Throughout the history, Afghanistan has been invaded by different armies, forces, and even many nomadic tribes from the deserts of Central Asia. Some of these invasions were very destructive, such as the invasion of Genghis Khan’s, however, some resulted in positive progress like the invasion by Kushanids. When thousands of Kushanids migrated into Afghanistan and became the settlers of this country, they became part of the country’s population and contributed to the regions’ civilization. Kujula Kadphises founded the Kushan Empire. He was the first powerful Kushanid King of Afghanistan.  In the year 40 CE, he crossed the Hindu Kush mountain and defeated the Kabulistan government. He expanded his territories connecting Kabulistan, Kapisa, and Sindh River to Bactria and Sogdia, forming a government covering all of Afghanistan.

The dialect that the Kushanid’s spoke was called Khatni and their alphabet was known as Kharosthi, which is the oldest known alphabet of Afghanistan and was written from right to left. Kharoshti existed a thousand years, from 500 BCE to 500 CE in Afghanistan.

During the Kushan Empire,  trade was booming because the Silk Road connecting China, India, and Iran was controlled by Afghanistan. [1] When Kanishka the Great became emperor of the Kushan Empire, a follower of Buddhism, encouraged Buddhist teachings, art, and architecture 

Afghanistan was part of the trade route between South Asia and Central Asia. Buddhist’s would journey through the region along the Silk Road to the Taklamakan Desert before reaching China and spreading the religion there. Buddhist foundations and monasteries started to flourish, resulting in the construction of the gargantuan Bamiyan Buddhas in the 6th century. The famous statues of Buddhas, carved on the side of a cliff in Bamyan, were once considered one of the wonders of the world before they were destroyed in 2001 with dynamite, which sparked an outrage around the world. Even so, it shows how advanced the people of that region in Afghanistan were architecturally at that time.

Hephthalites White Huns, which were part of Seti tribes, moved into Afghanistan from the north-east from the Syr Darya region. By the third century, they occupied the northern lands of Amu Darya. At the beginning of the fifth century, they crossed Amu Darya and entered the northern areas of Afghanistan, and for the first time, in 425 CE, in Takharistan Takhar province of Afghanistan, they formed a government. The most famous Hephthalites tribe that settled in Ghazni province were the Zawoli and their name remains till present day as the Zabul province.

The first Kings of Hephthalites, Apthalitu and Mehrbor started fighting the Sassanid government that controlled the northern and north-eastern province of Afghanistan. They were defeated in the first fight against Bahram Gor the Sassanid King, but later in mid fifth century, they defeated the Sassanid King Yazdegerd II in the ancient city Merv, located near today’s Mry, Turkmenistan.

The most famous Hephthalites King was Akhshnoor, who took the throne in 460 CE. He once again went to war with the Sassanids, which after defeating their army, captured the Sassanid King – Feroz, who originally came to throne, in 451 CE. Later Akhshnoor, who was married to Qubad’s sister, succeeded into Sassanid’s throne. Qubad had to pay Akhshnoor a hefty annual ransom with coins which carried the Kushan-Hephthalites alphabet.

The lands of Afghanistan have a long history of art, with the world’s earliest known usage of oil painting found in cave murals in the country. Afghan art includes Herat style, with Kamaleddin Behzad of Herat being one of the most notable miniature artists of the Timurid and early Safavid periods. [2]

Afghanistan, throughout time, has been repeatedly invaded by many great conquerors, but, in  the end, its people have always proudly and bravely stood against every one of them and became victorious.  The heroic fight against the Soviet Union, now known as Russia, ended with a million and a half Afghan martyr’s and thirty percent of its population forced to migrate and become refugees, however, ended with the collapse of the Soviet Union and victory for the Afghans. Through all of the wars, Afghans have always managed to pick up the pieces and rebuild itself afterwards. Afghans have always been peaceful people and have always extended the hand of friendship, especially, to those who are sincere.

90th century BCE

9000-3000 BCEAfghan famous historian Ustad Mir Ghulam Mohammad Ghobar in his greatest piece of  history book on Afghanistan “Afghanistan in the Path of History” writes: “Dr. Lui Dupree an American archeologist, as the result of excavation he carried out in Afghanistan, in 1965, in Aq Kupruk ((south of the city of Mazar at the banks of Balkh River) – in the north of Afghanistan in a district of Balkh Province)), discovered items such as bronze mirror, ring and bracelet, weapon, horse owl, ring with lapis lazuli ring gemstone and several others, that belongs to the New Stone Age dated from 3000 – 9000 BEC.  In this large area goats and sheep were raised, and this is in the area, where for the first time food grains were cultivated, and the animals were domesticated. Dr. Lui Dupree believed that these excavations could go as far as 20K years BCE. The excavations, in 1951, in Mandigak (55 km  north of Kandahar) showed that people of Afghanistan from 3000 BCE were villagers and were building from raw clay breaks; they were busy with agriculture and  raising  livestock. [1]

30th century BCE

3000-2000 BCEThe civilization in Arian Plateau and the  two  sides of Hindu-kush Mountain (Afghanistan and part of  Iran) :  Afghanistan during this period of time had an advanced agriculture and  irrigation systems, and there was a dominant city with a very large  population.. [1]

16th century BCE

1500 BCEAvesta is the book written byZortoast from Balkh (Northern province Afghanistan) is the 3rd oldest manuscript,1000 BCE, after the songs of Rig Vida in the book of Hindu Brahmins, 1500-2000 BCE, which were originally had been sung in Afghanistan and then were completed in India, and the Torah, 1500 BCE, the religious book of The Children of Israel. [1]
1000 BCEDuring the 1st 1000 year BCE handcrafts, coins, medicine, astronomy, textile and metal works, were wide spread in the area [1]

10th - 6th century BCE

10th-6th  BCEDuring this period of time agriculture and irrigation, crafts, handcrafts were in progress in Afghanistan. Bactria  (Area North of Hindu-Kush and south of Amu Darya) was the crossroads between Central Asia, Iran, and India, had a great economic impact in the economy of Central Asia.[1]

6th century BCE

545-539 BCEFor the 6 years between 545-539, Cyrus with a strong army start moving toward Bactria, with the aim to conquest these wetly territories, that at this point of history lacked a strong central government. The people of Afghanistan fought the outnumbered Cyrus army and showed a great deal of resistance. Cyrus conquered Karman province, Parthia, Bakhtar, Sattagydia (Hazarajat), Sistan, Baluchistan and Kandahar, and had very heavy fighting in Kapisa, but Cyrus himself in 539 BCE was killed in one of these fighting. [1]
516 BCEDarius I invades Afghanistan, makes it part of the Achaemenid Empire.
500 BCEThe culture of Afghanistan has persisted for over three millennia, tracing record to at least the time of the Achaemenid Empire in 500 BCE.

5th century BCE

5th century BCE

Mir Zakah is a 5th century B.C. E. well in Afghanistan, and Bopearachchi’s interest in Mir Zakah began when he was doing his PhD in France. He studied the coins in the Bibliotheque Nationale de France, many of which were from Mir Zakah, and had long discussions with Raoul Curiel, who had excavated Mir Zakah in 1948.

As luck would have it, in 1994, Bopearachchi got the opportunity to examine coins from the second Mir Zakah deposit. He was in Peshawar, and in the Shinwari Bazaar, he found coins with the same patina that he had seen in the coins in France. But nothing prepared him for the cornucopia of coins that he was to see. Sacks full, each containing 50 kilograms, were emptied in heaps before him, and after some time he had to tell the coin sellers to stop. He calls the experience a joy and a curse – a joy, because no numismatist could have seen such a deluge of coins; a curse because he knew that many of them would disappear into private collections, to which no one would have access. And as feared, in 1995, three tones of coins from the second Mir Zakah deposit were smuggled by private aircraft to London, and then taken to Boulogne and on to Basel, in Switzerland. [3]

4th century BCE

4th century BC

Ai Khanoum:

The ancient site of Ai Khanoum is thought to be the historical Alexandria on the Oxus, founded in the fourth century B.C. as a result of the conquests of Alexander the Great.[8] The Graeco-Bactrian site stood on the left bank of the Oxus river at its meeting point with the Kokcha tributary, rendering it a strategically placed military outpost to control the eastern territories of Alexander the Great’s ancient Bactria.[5]

330-327 BCEAlexander of Macedonia, after conquering Egypt, Asia Minor (Turkey) and moving toward Persia with his 30K infantry, 4K cavalier army, and 40 days’ supply of food marched toward Achaemerid Empire. After three fighting in Asia Minor, on the sides of Alexander Bay, and in the current Turkish Kurdistan, they smashed Persian Army and conquered Iran (Persia). This whole campaign took only 4 years. After these victories Alexander’s next step was India, but to go to India, he was supposed to pass Afghanistan. Alexander thought that he will cross Afghani without any delays, but he faced in Afghanistan four years of fierce fighting and resistance. Finally in, 330 BCE, after receiving 19K new fresh army from Greece, with 100K army he crossed Hindukush for the second time and through eastern provinces of Afghanistan went to India. Alexander and Batlimos were injured during these fighting. [1]
312 BCEAfghanistan becomes part of the Seleucid Empire after the death of Alexander III and breakup of the Macedonian Empire.
305-303 BCEThe Hindu Kush, Gandhara, Arachosia (centered around ancient Kandahar) and areas south of Bagram become part of the Mauryan Empire after Chandragupta Maurya defeats Seleucus I in the Mauryan-Seleucid war. After the death of Alexander, Afghanistan, in 311 BCE became under the control of 4 Greek governors (Governor of Bactria and Sogdia; Governor of Kabulistan and surrounding areas; Governor of Herat and Sistan; Governor of Kandahar and Baluchistan). In this time, an important political event happened in India, A powerful government in India under the leadership of Chandragupta Maurya, was formed. After the death of Alexander, he overthrew Magadha Kingdom and captured all Greek’s conquered territories in the area. He is the first one to put together the largest historical kingdom in India. After, this, Chandragupta turned toward eastern provinces of Afghanistan and pushed back Greek ruler Seleucus behind Sind River. From this time the road was opened for Buddhism and for the Buddhist preachers to get into Afghanistan. [1]      .

1st century

1st century CE

Hadda and the Stupa-monastery complex of Tepe Shortor

These ancient sites previously explored by French and Afghan archeologists. The ancient sites included in the ransack and pillaging, which ultimately would continue through and even after the Taliban regime, were the stupa-monastery complex of Tepe Shortor, Hadda, Ai Khanoum, Bactres and Tepe Marandjan.[5] 

Famous for its intricate Graeco-Buddhist sculptures and reliefs, the archeological site Hadda is in Gandhara an ancient state in what is now north-eastern Afghanistan, 10 kilometers from the present day city of Jalalabad (adjacent the Khyber Pass).[4] This site was excavated in the 1930s and 1970s where approximately 23,000 clay and plaster sculptures were found. These findings exemplified elements of Buddhism and Hellenism in a near perfect traditional Hellenistic style comparable to the sculptures found at the Temple of Apollo in Bassae, Greece. It is said that Hadda sustained significant damage in the Afghan Civil war and was destroyed in its entirety in 1980.[4]

30-78 CEThroughout history, Afghanistan was always had been invaded by different armies, forces, and even many nomadic tribes from the deserts of Central Asia. Some of these invasions were very destructive, like the Changes Khan’s invasion; but some brought positive progress in the country. One of these invasions and subsequent migration was by Kushanids. Thousands of Kushanids migrated  into Afghanistan and became the settlers of this country. They became part of the country’s population and contributed to the regions’ civilization. Kujula Kadphises founds the Kushan Empire in the Arghandab River valley. He was the first powerful Kushanid King of Afghanistan.  He crossed Hindukush and in the year 40 CE, he eliminated the Kabulistan government. He expanded his territories connecting Kabulistan and Kapisa and Sind River to Bactria and Sogdia.. This way, after Greeks and Bactria, once again a government covering all Afghanistan came into existence, and this process was completed by 78AC. [1]

2nd century

120Kanishka the Great becomes emperor of the Kushan Empire. He extends his empire from present-day southern Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, north of the Amu Darya (Oxus) in the north west to Northern India, as far as Pataliputra in the Gangetic Plains. A follower of Buddhism, he encourages Buddhist teachings, art and architecture.
151Kanishka Stupa is built. Reported by modern archeologists and ancient Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang to have had a diameter of 87 meters, height of 180–210 meters and covered with jewels.[4]

4th century

320-460 At the beginning of 3rd CE, the 200 years old great Kushan Empire slowly went into decline, and after the death of the last Kushan king, Vasudeva the Kushan Empire was ended. Under the pressure from the east and north different groups of Kushanids moved toward west and north-west. One of the powerful groups’ leaders was Kidara. Kidara started the new kingdom of Kidara, which was from the remnants of Great Kushans. Kidara with his army moved from Bactria to the south of Hindukush into Kabul, Kapisa, Gandahara, and Pakhtia  and by uniting different remnant of the Great Kushan Empire, formed the new Kingdom of Kidara that was spanned from Bamiyan in the west to Indus Valley in the east; in the north was the southern foothills of Hindukush and  the southern mountains was their southern border, and possibly till Banu. In Fact Kidara considered as the last king of the Great Kushan Empire and the first king of Small Kushan kingdom.  

5th century


Hephthalite (Hephthalites White Huns) , that were part of Seti tribes, moved into Afghanistan from the north-east from the Syr Darya (Syr River; its old Greek name “Jaxartes) region. By the 3rd century they occupied the northern lands of Amu Darya (River – the old Greek name “Oxus”). At the beginning of 5th CE, they crossed Amu Darya and entered the northern areas of Afghanistan, and for the first time, in 425 CE in Takharistan Takhar province of Afghanistan), they formed a government. The most famous Hephthalites tribe is “Zawoli”, that were settled in Ghazni province, and the area carried their name Zabul and Zabulistan (Zabul province of Afghanistan). The first kings of Hepthalites, Apthalitu and Mehrbor started fighting Sassanid government that were controlling northern and north-eastern province of Afghanistan. They were defeated in the first fight against Bahram Gor the Sassanid king, but later in mid Fifth Century, they defeated the Sassanid king Yazdegerd 2nd in the Merv area.

The most famous Hephthalites king was Akhshnoor (Ashnoor), who got the throne, in 460 CE. He once again went to war with Sassanids, and after crashing their army, captured the Sassanid king – Feroz, who originally came into throne, in 451 CE. Later AKhshnoor , who was married to Qubad’s sister ( Qubad was Feroze’s son) installed into Sassanid’s throne. Qubad had to pay Akhshnoor a hefty annual ransom with coins carried the Kushanid-Hephthalites alphabet.

Buddhism, Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism were their major religions. [1]

6th century

570Prior to their recent destruction, the 6th-7th century, rock-cut Buddha sculptures in the Bamiyan Valley of central Afghanistan were considered the largest in the world. Known collectively as the Bamiyan Buddhas, the two monumental sculptures have amazed both Buddhist and non-Buddhist visitors for more than a thousand years. Like many of the world’s great ancient monuments, little is known about who commissioned the Bamiyan Buddhas or the sculptors who carved them. However, their very existence points to the importance of the Buddhist faith and the Bamiyan Valley during this period.

West Buddha surrounded by caves, c. 6th-7th c C.E., stone, stucco, paint, 175 feet high, Bamiyan, Afghanistan,  destroyed 2001. [10]

The smaller of the Buddhas of Bamiyan, known as the “Eastern Buddha” built, during Hephthalites rule.

7th - 10th century

643-661 Muslim Conquest (Afghanistan during the time of the Rashidun Caliphs): In the seventh century AD, when the ancient civilization of the world, which originated in Greece, was declining and the Roman Empire was disintegrating and corrupting, Italy lost its former glory and Spain (Spain) lost its order. In short, a large part of Europe was dominated by Berber tribes, in Asia the Persian Empire was on the verge of extinction and the vast country of China and India were crushed under the power of the celestial empire and sectarian monarchies. The land was ruled by poverty and cruelty, oppression and ignorance At such a time, the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), the great prophet of Islam, emerged on the basis of monotheism, freedom, equality and justice.
643-658 Afghan war with the Arabs that lasted 200 years, their liberation from the bondage of the Sassanids, China and Turkey
661-820 Afghanistan during the caliphate of the Umayyads and the Abbasids: In 47 AH (667 AD), when the caliphate of the Holy Prophet of Islam (peace be upon him and his family) was transferred to the Umayyad Empire, the Arabs crossed the Amu Darya through Herat and were able to establish an Arab center in Nishaboor and one step further in Merv. In the year 91 AH (709 AD), when they ruled the lands of Bacteria, they faced strong resistance from the people and in some cases suffered heavy casualties. In Kabul, the Arabs faced a young resistance called Rostamdad Kabul and were besieged for several days and nights. Finally, the new Arab forces under the command of an Arab general named Laith Ibn Qays known as Shah Dushamshira came to the aid of the troops. Laith captured Kabul and its suburbs. [1] Thus, from 23 to 129 AH, 643 to 749 AD, the political and military battle between Arabs and Afghans lasted for one hundred years. Abu Muslim Khorasani, who was full of intellect and strong determination, quickly became the center of national activities in his youth. He contacted the secret party of the Bani Abbas, who were the bloody enemies of the Umayyad dynasty, and named their family after Abbas bin Abdulmutallab, the uncle of the Prophet of Islam. Implemented its political goal and immediately gathered about one hundred thousand volunteer soldiers from different provinces of Islamic Afghanistan such as Herat, Bushnak, Murghab, Merv, Nessa, Iboard, Tus, Sarakhs, Balkh, Chaghanian, Ghor, Takharistan, etc. And with the title of emperor, he declared his emirate in 120 AH (740
642 –825 Thus, from 22 AH to 205 AH, the Afghan nation dealt with the Arab nation, and as a result, the religion of Islam and the Arabic language with Islamic sciences were spread in Afghanistan. As soon as the Afghans began to accept Islam in the first century AH, they advanced in Arabic and Islamic sciences such as the Qur’an, commentary, hadith and jurisprudence, and scholars such as Imam Abu Hanifa, Laghman Kabuli al-Asl, Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal Maruzi, Ibn al-Mubarak Marwi, Hafiz Ibn Abdullah, Muhammad Ibn Nasr Maruzi, Abu Dawud Sajestani, Abu Khalid Kaboli and others dedicated to the Islamic world until the third century AH. [11]
821-872 Tahirid Government of Afghanistan (Taherian): With the transfer of the capital of the Islamic Empire from Khorasan to Baghdad by Mamun Abbasi, the Afghans did not lose heart and still a man like Tahir Zuliminin was alive in Baghdad and their hopes were drawn to him. Pushang Herat was a wealthy, experienced and wise man, he knew the story of the devoted Afghan men on the battlefield against the Arab domination as well as the stories of the Barmaki and Sahl Khorasani families, so he chose the middle way. At the court of Baghdad, he tried hard to be appointed by Mamun to the Emir of Khorasan and entered Afghanistan in 205 AH (845 AD). As soon as a year had passed since his emirate and he had secured and organized the conquered Afghanistan from Takharistan to Sistan, in 206 AH (826 AD) he declared the independence of Islamic Afghanistan and removed the name of the Abbasid Caliph from the sermon, thus after two centuries of effort. Afghanistan succeeded in declaring and consolidating its independence from the Arabs in the north and west of the country. [11]
821-872 Safari government of Afghanistan (Saffarians): At such a time when the Tahrir Emirate of Khorasan came to the fore and the policy of moderation and moderation against the Arabs continued for half a century, which of course was not to the liking of the majority of the nation. Led to the formation of a strong and serious Afghan government. The founder of this government is Yaqub Ibn Laith Saffari Marvi, a native of Sistan, who declared his monarchy in 253 AH at the hands of his warrior comrades. The Safarid government of Afghanistan, in domestic and foreign policy, unlike the government of Taherid, took a new approach in the sense that within the plan to eliminate the sectarian monarchies of Afghanistan and the religious unity of the country, especially within the provinces of Sistan, Zabulistan, Kabulistan, Takharistan, Balkh Neishabour, Kerman The esteem of Fars, Tabarestan and Amol provinces made Khuzestan all part of the Safarid Government.
874-999 Samanid Government of Afghanistan: The Samanid family was from Balkh and their religion was Zoroastrian. Naser Bin Ahmad Samanid was the founder of Samanid Dynasty, that for one and aquarter of century ruled over Afghanistan. This was the period of Islamic renaissance in the world, and Central Asia (Afghanistan, Transoxiana, and Iran) was moving along this caravan. The Samanids, who had an independent state in Bukhara before the Ghaznavids, replaced Arabic with and used it as the official language. 

10th century - 20th century

967 – 1201Ghaznavid period of Afghanistan (967 – 1201 AD): In 961 CE, Alaptagin was appointed by Abdul Malik the Samanid ruler as the governor of Northen Afghanistan. After Abdul Malik’s death, Alaptagin supported his son to become his substitute, but the inner circle in the palace supported Malik’s brother, Amir Mansoor, to replace the king. Emir Mansoor, then sent an army to eliminate Alaptagin, but Alaptagin, in the area of Kholm, defeated this army, and moved to the heart of Afghanistan, Ghazni. By the power of his sword, Alaptagin captured Ghazni from its governor Abubaker Lawik, in 962 CE. In 977 Sabuktagin, the son-in-law of Alaptagin reached the crown of kingdom. He is considered the founder of the powerful Ghaznawid Dynasty. He was called the Emir of Khurasan.He started the expansion of the kingdom by conquering Bost, Qasdar in Baluchistan, Laghman,  Peshawar, Bukhara, Herat, Nishapur, Takharistan, and Balkh one after another. He completed political unification of Afghanistan and expanded eastward up to Sind River. One of the most famous rulers of Afghanistan was Sultan Mahmud Ghaznawi (998-1030 CE). At age 27 he declared himself the king in Nishapur. He defeated in Ghazni his brother Ismael, who declared himself the king in Balkh. Ismael was jailed in Jawzjan. Sultan Mahmud created a vast empire expanding from Qazwin Iran, to northern India, and from Khwarizm to Arabian Sea. Sultan Mahmood died in at the age 59, in 1030 CE. After Sultan Mahmood his son Sultan Ma‘sud became the Emperor. [1]
1038 – 1146The Seljuk Empire in Afghanistan: Tughril was one of the powerful kings of his era. He is the founder of Seljuk Dynasty. He died in 1063 CE. Seljuks at the beginning were mostly Bedouins, and were not familiar with the city life style. Jalaluddin Malek Shah, son of Alb Arsalan 485-465 AH (1086-1106 AD) appointed a great man from Afghanistan, Khwajah Nizam al-Mulk Tusi, who was his father’s minister, as his own government Minister. This way, he caused the advancement of his realm at the hands of this unique Minister. The king established the kingdom of the Seljuks in Asia Minor, and extended his empire, from the borders of Kashgar, and Central Asia to the Roman sea, and developed science and literature. Nizam-ol-Molk wrote the book Siyastnamah (The politics), and built schools and buildings in Isfahan, Herat, Basra and Baghdad; and Omar Khayyam, the famous poet and sage, compiled the Jalali History. Barkiarq, the king’s son, declared his brother Sanjar to open the viceroy of Afghanistan in 490 AH (1111 AD). Sanjar declared the independence of Afghanistan in 498 AH (1119 AD), and annexed Transoxiana in 524 AH )1145 AD.
1148 – 1214Ghori Government of Afghanistan (Ghorians):Ghor province had a local government in the pre-Islamic period and was called the grandson of the (Syrian) ruler. It was the descendants of this family who entered into friendly relations with the Arab Islamic Caliphate in the first century AH and accepted the religion of Islam. From then on, this local Islamic government lasted until the fourth century AH. The famous Sultan Ghiasuddin and the famous king Shahabuddin Ghori conquered most of India and replaced Delhi with Lahore, the capital of the Afghan government of India. In military, literary and social progress, the Ghorian government pursued and completed the Ghaznavid plan, making India ready for the rule of Afghan Islamic states for several hundred years, from 602 AH (1223 AD) to the last years of the 10th century AH in central India. , Bengal, Malwa, Gujarat, Orissa, Deccan and South India Several dynasties of Afghan kings, such as Mawali Ghor (Qutbiyah, Shamsiyah, Ghiasiyah) Khalajiyah, Tughlaqshahiyah, Khezrkhaniyeh, Ludehiyeh Syria, Bangrieh, Kraniyeh, Bahmineh, Farooqiyah and … Four They ruled for a century. During this time, they spread the civilization, science, literature, craft and art of Islamic Afghanistan throughout the vast country of India.
1069-1225Government of Khwarazmid (Khwarazmshahian): The supreme heir of the Khwarazmid dynasty was a native of Georgia (Maimana) Afghanistan named Anushtagin Gharjah, and one of the officials of the court of Sultan Malikshah of Seljuk, who was later appointed as the shenghi of Khwarazm province. In the year 491 AH (1112 AD), Sultan Sanjar, the Seljuk king of Khorasan (Afghanistan) appointed Mohammad son of Anoshtagin to the rule of Khwarazm. And this person ruled there for thirty years. After the death of Qutbuddin Muhammad, his son Atz Khwarazmshah, came to the rule of Khwarezm on behalf of Sultan Sanjar, but Atz had a great dream and in 535 AH 1156 May declared independence in the wars that took place between him and Sanjar, Atz was defeated and finally, the Turks incited Ghaz against Sultan Sanjar and thus overthrew the Seljuk government of Afghanistan. After this, the kings of Khwarazm ruled independently, like Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, they sought to form a great government. Sultan Aladdin Mohammad is the son of the same person who formed the Qarakhtaean government of East Turkestan and the Ghori government of Afghanistan and the small governments of Atabakan of Persia, and Azerbaijan one after the other, and formed the great empire of Khwarazm.
1211 – 1358Mongol invasion, Genghis Khan, Chaghta: In 558 AH (1162 AD) Temuchen was born in the upper valley of the Amu Darya. Who later took the title of Genghis, that is, the great emperor, the father of this boy was named Isogai, and he was from the Qiyat Burchi tribe and the leader of his tribe in Mongolia. As soon as Genghis took his father’s place, he gathered his neighboring and savage tribes under one banner, and with the perseverance of the civilized nations. Genghis became the ruler of his tribe in 571 AH (1192 AD), after fighting with his opponents, he became one of the agents of Tughral Khan, nicknamed Aung Khan, the ruler of the Cretan tribes. Sultan Aladdin Mohammad Kharazm Shah ruled over Afghanistan, Transoxiana, and Iran with his capital in Organj. But there was a stark difference between the two empires, in the sense that the emperor of the Turanian dynasty was a violent, bloodthirsty man who ruled over a large force of a few hundred million and an army of one million obedient to a savage war that all obeyed his orders. They did not know from the beginning, unlike the Muslim emperor, he was a civil, arrogant, selfish and tyrannical man and he commanded a nation that all were considered civilized, wealthy, and had urban characteristics. The Choghtais took center in Transoxiana, and brutally ruled Afghanistan from Takharistan and Balkh to Kabul and Zabul by their rulers. The northwestern provinces of Afghanistan at that time belonged to the Mongol Empire of Persia, and the provinces of Sindh, Kashmir, Sistan, Pakhtia, Baluchistan, and Gandahara took the form of local sectarian monarchies.
1332 – 1370Al-Kurt (Princes of Heart Kurt): During the reign of Ghorid Afghanistan, one of the royal family members, named Omar Marghni, was the viceroy of Heart. Shams al-Din is a virtuous, wise, civilized man and in fact the founder of the Cretan dynasty. The son of Shams al-Din the 1st, served a lot in the development of agriculture and mansion. Fakhr al-Din was the son of this man, who was considered a brave man, writer, poet and Mamdouh Rabiee, the moderator of the book (Kurtnamah) and fought brave battles against the Persian Mongols. The Kurt government of Herat was the only local government in Afghanistan, during the period of Mongol and Chaghtai barbarism, which managed a part of the country through politics and tactics and kept alive the old national civilization and education. Therefore, the Al-Kurt of Herat, who were the remnants of the Ghorid dynasty, had the opportunity to rule their land independently between the years 733 AH (1332 AD) to 772 A (1370 AD). In addition to the Kurt rule of Herat, during the Mongol conquest until the invasion of Amir Timur Gurkani, other local governments in Afghanistan also existed, or were newly established, and each maintained its presence in different parts of the country against foreign enemies, such as the Sarbdariya Government was established, in737 AH, in Sabzevar province by Abdul Razzaq, son of Jamaluddin Fazlullah, a member of the historical Brahma family of Afghanistan, and resisted the Persian Mongol government.
1369-1514Amir Timur Gurkan and Afghanistan (Timurids) Amir Teymour was the son of Amir Traghay, the ruler of Turkistan. He came to the world on the 25th of Sha’ban 736 AH in the same city. His tribe was from the Tatar branch of Turkistan, but at that time, belonging to the Mongol people, of which Genghis Khan was the most famous, was considered a kind of honor, so “Amir Timur” passed his lineage to “Genghis Khan” and the Mongol people. Timur means “iron” in the Chaghta language and is referred to by the titles “Amir Timur”, “Timur Lang”, “Timur Gurkan” and “Sahebqaran”, and the Europeans call him “Tamerlane”. In any case, the Timurid government of Afghanistan lasted for a century, and finally, due to the rise of the Safavid states of Persia, and the Trans-Euphrates, their political circle was limited day by day until it completely disappeared and gave way to governments in northern and western Afghanistan. In Eastern Afghanistan, they gave the new government to the newly formed Indian state, and thus Afghanistan was once again divided and ruined.
1500 – 1598Sheibani and Estrakhani influence (1500 – 1598 AD): In the early tenth century AH, Mohammad Sheibani, a descendant of Holaku Khan, who came with his group from Siberia or across the river, overthrew the Gurkhanid dynasty and formed the Uzbek government. These twelve people continued their rule in Transoxiana from 906 AH to 1007 AH, and a branch of them took over the local government of Khwarazm. Balkh and Merv came to dominate, meaning that these were not limited to these provinces but also extended to Herat and Nishapur provinces. The Shebanis’ main base was in Samarkand and Bukhara, they did not pay attention to the occupied Afghan provinces to attract property, and their destruction continued for another century in the provinces under their control in Afghanistan.
1501-1722Influence of Safavids (1501 – 1722 AD): At the beginning of the tenth century AH, the Safavid government of Persia was formed and lasted from 907 AH to 1135. This government, like the Uzbek government beyond Transoxiana, coveted Afghanistan and invaded the provinces of Nishapur, Herat, Merv, Balkh, Sistan and Kandahar. From the time of Shah Ismail Safavid, who was officially crowned in Tabriz in 907 AH, until the end of Shah Tahmasb’s reign in 989 AH, the Safavid government did not succeed much in defeating the Uzbeks living in Afghanistan.
1504 – 1707Influence of the Baburid government:In the early tenth century AH, when the country of Afghanistan was caught between the conflict of Sheibani and Safavid governments, a person named Behlool Lodi in 855 AH (1451 AD) also seized the throne of Delhi and established the Lodi dynasty that lasted seventy-five years. Zahir al-Din Muhammad Babur was the eldest son of Omar Sheikh, the Timurid prince who ruled Fergana. But after succeeding his father, the Uzbek Turks seized all his property and homeland. In 910 AH (1504 AD), he was defeated and disturbed, along with several hundred of his loyalists, on a journey in the hope of possible conquests. He finally became the founder of the Mongol Empire of India. Zahir al-Din, like his grandfather Timur Lang, was a Turk and he was proud to be a Turk; and also claimed to be Genghis Khan’s grandson. He chose Kabul as his center due to its mild climate and commercial importance. After the conquest of India, he never returned to Kabul, but according to his will, after his death his body was brought to this city and transferred into the garden, that he had established under the name of Babur Garden (this garden still exists by the same name), and was buried there. Afghans were not ineffective in the collapse of the Mongol Empire of India. During the two hundred years that the Mongols ruled India, Afghanistan’s border cities were raided and were constantly in conflict on three fronts: the Mongols on the one hand, the Iranians on the west, and the Uzbek Turks on the north. Kabul, Herat and Kandahar repeatedly clashed with these rival claimants. [11]
1709 – 1738Hotaki government of Afghanistan and reign over Iran for seven years (1709 – 1738 AD): In the early 11th century AH, there were 25,000 Persian soldiers with their ruler, the Armenian Gorgin, in the city of Kandahar, who waiting for an opportunity. The local people were always in opposition to the Iranian forces. To quell the actions of the people, Gorgin sent Mirwais Khan son of Shah Alam Hotaki, who was the leader of the Ghilzai tribe, to exile from the city of Kandahar to the court of Isfahan.  Mirwais, after carefully arranging the administration of Isfahan and the character of the guardians, traveled from there to Mecca and on his return to Isfahan convinced Shah Hussein Safavid to agree to his return to Kandahar. As soon as he arrived to Kandahar, in 1120 AH, he gathered other Afghan patriots around him and in one night he killed Gorgin with his companions and declared his independence in Kandahar. Mir Wais’s young son Mir Mahmud carried out the plan of his famous old father, which meant that his father expelled the enemy forces from Kandahar province, and gave the opportunity to establish a free local government in Herat province to the leaders of the Abdali tribe of Afghanistan. Unlike the enemy, he gave the opportunity for political activities, to the local leaders of Sistan. Mahmud, as the king of Afghanistan and the emperor of Persia, worked hard, until 1137 AH, to bring a good system of governance in Persia. At this time, from inside the country, Tahmasb, the son of Shah Hussein Safavid, was still plotting against him, and from outside, the Russian and Ottoman Turkish governments with greedy eyes were looking into Persia. After this, Hussein Khan as King Hussein Hotaki proclaimed his monarchy in Kandahar, and continued to rule until the battles of Nader Shah Afshar in 1151 AH, but this decree was limited to Kandahar and did not extend to other provinces of Afghanistan. However, after the extinction of the Timurid government of Afghanistan, the Hotaki government of Afghanistan is the first sizable government to be formed in Kandahar, and after the imperial era of Ghaznavids, once again conquered Iran. Although the Hotaki government has not succeeded in unifying the political administration of Afghanistan at home, and for most they had been busy consolidating the capital of Kandahar and occupying Persia, but it is still the greatest example of independence and the formation of a new Afghan empire for the next Afghan governments. [11]
735-  1747Nader Shah Afshar Khorasani: Nader Gholi, the son of Imam Gholi, was a man from the Afshar tribe and a native of Khorasan, Afghanistan. He was born in Abivard and worked as a farmer and embroidered fur. After the death of the governor, he was appointed by King Mahmoud Sistani, to the autonomous Tus province, as the governor of the local government of Abivard. After getting sufficient number of forces and the strength needed, he attacked the city of Nishapur and occupied it. In numerous fighting, after defeating Turks, he recaptured the lost territories in Persia. He reclaimed, through negotiations and treaties with the Russian government, the territories on the Caspian and Baku coasts. Nader was crowned in 1148 AH. Nader Shah had already taken the city and province of Herat from the dynasty of the local ruler of Abdali in 1144 AH, during a series of wars and severe defeats. In 1150 AH, the province of Balkh was liberated from the control of the Trans-Euphrates wars due to the conquest of his brave son Reza Qoli, and after a year of fighting, he liberated the city of Kandahar from the control of Shah Hussein Hotaki, and unfortunately destroyed it. In 1151 AH (1737 AD) he entered India through Kabul to reach Delhi. Thus, in a few years, Nader Shah Afshar Khorasani formed a large government consisting of Afghanistan, Transoxiana, Persia and India and established his capital in Mashhad. 
1747 -1842Independent government of Abdali Afghanistan: After Nader Shah’s death, Afghan leaders and troops marched from Tus province to Kandahar province and began to form a jirga in Nader Abad Castle and elect a king. As a result, Ahmad Khan Abdali, the son of Zaman Khan, the former governor of Herat province, who was in the Afghan army with Nader Shah, was elected to the kingdom of Afghanistan in 1160 AH. Ahmad Shah, who was named by the nation because of his valuable servants (Ahmad Shah Baba Afghan) was born in 1135 AH in the city of Herat and was 25 years old and was in thrown until 1186 AH. Ahmad Shah was a worthy political and military man, who during the 25 years of his reign served important services for Afghanistan. After the formation of the government and the army, he did bring under one central administration all provinces of Afghanistan such as: Qataghan, Badakhshan, Kerman, Baluchistan, Sindh, Kashmir, Chenranal, Kabul, Ghor, Peshawar, and Punjab. Later, he crossed the Jejun River (Amu River) to protect the northern provinces, and several times crossed the Stalaj River, to protect the Indus Basin, and was victorious in all the battles. Ahmad Shah (Ahmad Khan Saduzai) nicknamed Ahmad Shah Baba marched on India 12 times. The Battle of Panipit, with a force of half a million soldiers, in 1174 AH, is one of the most famous foreign wars of Ahmad Shah, who recorded him as a war hero in the history of Afghanistan and India. Also, Ahmad Shah established the civil organization inside the country, and the establishment of the ministry and civil and military departments of Afghanistan on a clearer basis. He also, for the first time, formed a permanent Jirga (Tribal Council) from the national elders, for consultations. After the death of Ahmad Shah in 1187 AH (1773 AD), his second son and successor of Ahmad Shah, Timur Shah, moved his capital from Kandahar to Kabul and this dynasty ruled Afghnaistan for one century.
During the reign of Shah Shuja, son of Timur Shah, son Ahmad Shah Baba, the incitement of foreign powers ignited internal wars, leading to the first Afghan-British war on the one hand and the numerous Afghan-Iranian wars on the other. As a result of the treaties of Lahore in 1254 AH (1838 AD) and Kandahar in 1255 AH (1839 AD) between Shah Shuja and the Brits, in addition to depriving Afghanistan of political independence, the provinces of Sindh, Multan, Kashmir, Peshawar, Atak and Deirajat in the east, were seceded from Afghanistan. It was in this war that Nawab Mohammad Zaman Khan, Shuja al-Dawla Khan, Wazir Akbar Khan, Mohammad Osman Khan Tagawi, Naeb Aminullah Khan Logari, Mohammad Shah Khan Babakarkhil, Mullah Momin Ghaljai, became the national heroes of Afghanistan.
1842 – 1974Government of Mohammad Zaei in Afghanistan: In 1273 AH, Sardar Sultan Ahmad Khan Barakzai took over the government of Herat and in 1279 his son Shahnavaz Khan succeeded him. However, soon Amir Dost Mohammad Khan, the first king of Mohammad Zaei dynasty, made Heart part of Afghanistan and established the Mohammad Zaei dynasty. After the internal turmoil in Afghanistan and the affairs of the Abdali royal family, the affairs of the country fell into the hands of several brothers of the slain Wazir Fatah Khan. The British had invaded Balochistan and Sindh was not anymore obeying the Afghan Governemnt. In such critical circumstances, Dost Mohammad Khan called himself the Emir of Afghanistan, in 1250 AH (1835 AD). When the British refused the request of Amir Dost Mohammad Khan, meanwhile, Shah Shuja, the deposed and deprived from crown prince, announced, if the Brits help him to get the government in Kabul, he would be willing to hand over Peshawar to the Sikhs. By this time the Iranians had evacuated Herat, but the Brits still occupied Afghanistan, thus beginning the first Anglo-Afghan War (1254 AH (1838 AD) – 1258 AH (1842 AD)). Dost Mohammad Khan, the exiled Amir returned from India to Afghanistan and was welcomed by the people. Before his death in 1279 AH (1863 AD), Dost Mohammad Khan was able to unite Afghanistan in almost the same territory as it is today. [11]
1879Second Afghan-British War: The Russians formed an army on the northern borders of Afghanistan and in 1295 AH (1878 AD) sent a diplomatic delegation to Amir Shir Ali Khan. The British reciprocally sent a political delegation to Kabul to encounter Russians, but the Afghan border guards stopped the British delegation in the Khyber Strait. The British, outraged by the Kabul government’s behavior, said that the Afghan government should apologize for this and allow the British delegation to enter Kabul. Amir Shir Ali Khan’s explanations did not convince Britain either, so a second British-Afghan war broke out. The delegates sent by the British to Kabul in 1296 AH (1879 AD) in accordance with the provisions of the same peace treaty (Gandmak Peace Treaty) were assassinated, a few weeks later, by Afghans who opposed the treaty. Abdul Rahman, who had gathered the people of Afghan Turkistan around him, gave up his foreign relations independence to Brits in exchange for his recognition as the king, by the British government. During his reign, the Russians and the British reached a definitive agreement on Afghanistan’s long borders with Russia, from the borders of Iran to the Pamirs. The south-western borders of Britain were also determined by the infamous Durand Line Treaty, as a result of which half of the Pashtun territory was ceded to British forces.
1919War of Independence: After the death of Amir Habibullah Khan, his third son, Amanullah Khan took the father’s throne and crown. And it was accepted as the king of Afghanistan. Britain, in return to the promise of neutrality of Afghanistan in the World War 1, promised full independence of Afghanistan. This promise was not fulfilled and caused the third war between Afghanistan and Britain. After 10 days of war, the British government agreed, in 1919, to accept full independence of Afghanistan. In 1921 AD, Britain recognized Afghanistan’s independence in a treaty in Rawalpindi. Shah Amanullah abandoned the isolationist policies of his grandfather and father and undertook a series of fundamental reforms. In the year 1307 AH (1927 AD). Amanullah Khan was the first Afghan leader to change his title from Amir to Shah, and visited Europe, Turkey, Egypt and Iran with his wife, Queen Suraya. Surprised by the developments in the world, especially in the neighboring Muslim countries (Iran and Turkey), he undertook extensive measures and reforms. Removal of women’s hijab and popularization of European clothes in government offices and offices were among the best actions of the young Afghan king. Shah Amanullah’s stand against Britain produced a rift in British politics, which used the time to conspire with other people who wished to come to power against the newly founded government of Shah Amanullah. The Brits propagated Shah Amanullah Khan’s proposals, in the eyes of the nation, in such a negative and humiliating way to provoke the nation against him. For example, they accused the Shah of blasphemy and madeup ignorant photos of the Shah’s wife (Queen Soraya) without a hijab and distributed them among the tribes. They also prepared another ignorant photo that allegedly showing the Shah kissed the hand of the Pope in Europe. Meanwhile, a young man named Habibullah Kalakani, with a few of his loyal companions and veterans, set out from the north for Kabul to seize the throne and the crown. Shah Amanullah did not consider the unnecessary war that would cause the killing of his compatriots, and left the throne and crown going first to India and from there to Italy. Mohammad Nader Khan and his brothers incited the people against Habibullah Kalkani with the help from opportunistic clerics. Nader Khan entered Kabul with the southern tribes and killed Habibullah and his supporters. In this way, he established the government of Nader Khan of the Mohammadzai tribe. Nader Khan was shot dead by a young man named Abdul Khaliq in 1933 while distributing prizes at a school. After Nadir Khan’s assassination, his eldest son Zahir Shah, at the age of nineteen, was nominated as the heir to his father’s throne. With the introduction of the new constitution and parliament in accordance with the standards of the contemporary world, in 1964 (1964), he accepted a relatively dramatic political change in Afghanistan. [11]
1965, January 1 The  People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) held its first congress.
1973, July 17Mohammed Daoud Khan declares himself President in a coup against the king, Mohammed Zahir Shah.
1977, JanuaryA loya jirga approved a new constitution. It wrote in several new articles and amended others – one of these was the creation of a presidential one-party system of government. A new constitution was adopted and Daoud Khan was elected as the first president of Afghanistan.
1978, April 27Saur Revolution: Military units loyal to the PDPA assaulted the Afghan Presidential Palace, killing President Mohammed Daoud Khan and the majority of his family members.
1978, May 1Saur Revolution: The PDPA installed its leader, Nur Muhammad Taraki, as President of Afghanistan.
1978, JulyA rebellion against the new Afghan government began with an uprising in Nuristan Province.
1978, December 5A treaty was signed which permitted deployment of the Soviet military at the Afghan government’s request.
1979, September 14Taraki was murdered by supporters of Prime Minister Hafizullah Amin.
1979, December 24Soviet–Afghan War: Fearing the collapse of the Amin regime, the Soviet army invaded Afghanistan.
1979, December 27Operation Storm-333: Soviet troops occupied major governmental, military and media buildings in Kabul, including the Tajbeg Palace, and executed Prime Minister Amin.
1988, April 14Soviet–Afghan War: The Soviet government signed the Geneva Accords, which included a timetable for withdrawing their armed forces.
1989, February 15Soviet–Afghan War: The last Soviet troops left the country.
1992, April The so called Civil war in Afghanistan (1989–1992): Afghan political parties signed the Peshawar Accord which created the Islamic State of Afghanistan and proclaimed Sibghatullah Mojaddedi its interim President for a term of 2 months.
1992, April With Hekmatyar starting shelling of Kabul the so called Civil War started, which continued in different forms, intensity and alliances, till the fall of President Rabbani in Kabul and took over the power by Taliban. 
1992, June 28As agreed upon in the Peshawar Accord, Jamiat-e Islami leader Burhanuddin Rabbani took over as President.
1992Taliban attacks and looting of the National Museum of Afghanistan result in loss of 70% of the 100,000 artifacts of Afghan culture and history.
1994, AugustThe Taliban government began to form in a small village between Lashkar Gah and Kandahar.
1995, JanuaryThe Taliban, with Pakistani support, initiated a military campaign against the Islamic State of Afghanistan and its capital Kabul.
1995, March 13Taliban tortured and killed Abdul Ali Mazari leader of the Hazara people.
1996, September 26Civil war in Afghanistan (1996–2001): The forces of the Islamic State retreated to northern Afghanistan.
1996, September 27Civil war in Afghanistan (1996–2001): The Taliban conquered Kabul and declared the establishment of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. Former President Mohammad Najibullah, who had been living under United Nations protection in Kabul, was tortured, castrated and executed by Taliban forces.
1998, AugustCivil war in Afghanistan (1996–2001): The Taliban captured Mazar-e Sharif, forcing Abdul Rashid Dostum into exile.
1998, August 11Destruction of the Puli Khumri Public Library by the Taliban. The library contained over 55,000 books and old manuscripts and was considered by Afghans as one of the most valuable and beautiful collections of their nation and their culture.[12][13]
1998, August 20Operation Infinite Reach: Cruise missiles were fired by the United States Navy into four militant training camps in the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.

21st century

2001, March 2Destruction of the Buddhas of Bamiyan by the Taliban with dynamite, on orders from its leader Mullah Omar.
2001, September 9Resistance leader Ahmad Shah Massoud was killed in a suicide bomb attack by two Arabs who were disguised as French news reporters.
2001, September 20After the September 11 attacks in the United States, U.S. President George W. Bush demanded the Taliban government to hand over al-Qaeda head Osama bin Laden and close all terrorist training camps in the country.
2001, September 21The Taliban refused Bush’s ultimatum for lack of evidence connecting bin Laden to 9/11 attacks.[14]
2001, October 7Operation Enduring Freedom: The United States and the United Kingdom began an aerial bombing campaign against al-Qaeda and the Taliban.
2001, October 7Reports of Taliban having destroyed at least 2,750 ancient works of art at the National Museum of Afghanistan during the year.
2001, December 5The United Nations Security Council authorized the creation of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to help maintain security in Afghanistan and assist the Karzai administration.[15]
2001, December 20International Conference on Afghanistan in Germany: Hamid Karzai chosen as head of the Afghan Interim Administration.
2002, July2002 loya jirga: Hamid Karzai appointed as President of the Afghan Transitional Administration in Kabul, Afghanistan.
2003, December 142003 loya jirga: A 502-delegate loya jirga was held to consider a new Afghan constitution.
2004, October 9Hamid Karzai was elected President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan after winning the Afghan presidential election.
2005Taliban insurgency: An insurgency began after a Pakistani decision to station around 80,000 soldiers next to the porous Durand Line border with Afghanistan.
2006, March 1Bush and wife visited Afghanistan to inaugurate the renovated Embassy of the United States in Kabul.
2007, May 13Afghanistan–Pakistan Skirmishes: Skirmishes began with Pakistan.
2010U.S. President Barack Obama sent additional 33,000 U.S. soldiers to Afghanistan, with the total international troops reaching 150,000.
2010, February 16Number two in the Afghan Taliban, Abdul Ghani Baradar, is captured in Pakistan.
2010, June 23General Petraeus replaces General McChrystal as head of ISAF.
2010, DecemberDecember: NATO summit in Lisbon. The twenty-eight of the organization and their allies set 2014 as the end of military engagement in Afghanistan. On that date, the Afghan army will take control of the country’s security.
2011After the death of Osama bin Laden in Pakistan, many high-profile Afghan officials were assassinated, including among them were Mohammed Daud Daud, Ahmed Wali Karzai, Jan Mohammad Khan, Ghulam Haider Hamidi, and Burhanuddin Rabbani.
2011, June 19US Secretary of Defense Robert Gates confirms for the first time the existence of contacts with the Taliban, with a view to a political end to the conflict.
2011, June 22Barack Obama announces the timetable for the withdrawal of American forces. One-third of the 100,000 troops are expected to return home by 2012, 10,000 of them this year. Full withdrawal is scheduled for 2014.
2011, June 23France announces “a gradual withdrawal” of the reinforcements sent to Afghanistan, in parallel with the scheduled repatriation of American forces.
2012The United Nations Security Council, by its resolution 1401 of March 28, 2002, established the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA), headed since January 17, 2012 by the former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Slovakia and former OSCE Secretary General Jan Kubis.
2014Apr 5th Former World Bank economist Ashraf Ghani is elected president. The war with Taliban goes on.
2018Dialogue between the United States and the Taliban opens in Doha
2019Series of Terrorist attacks in Afghanistan
2019After a year 2018 marked by numerous terrorist attacks, Afghanistan is once again rocked by a surge of deadly violence in 2019. It peaks during the summer, when negotiations are underway between the United States government and the Taliban and that the country prepare for the presidential election scheduled for September 28.
2020After the elections Abdullah and Ghani both declared themselves winners, so two presidents at the same time. Eventually, after much discussion Abdullah became head of the Peace Commission and Ghani President. Release of 5,000 Taliban prisoners, intensification of attacks in several regions and provinces. Negotiations with the Taliban are not over and continue.
2021While the targeted assassinations of high ranking government officials, civil rights activists, journalists and others, and many other forms of terrorist attacks continue, on the daily basis, mainly in Kabul, but also in other provinces, the new round of peace talks after 3 weeks of delay, started back in Doha on Jan 5th, with the Afghan Government and Taliban both sides far away on their demands for peace.
  1. “Rigveda 1.126:7, English translation by Ralph TH Griffith”
  2. Arthur Anthony Macdonell (1997). A History of Sanskrit Literature. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 130–. ISBN 978-81-208-0095-3.
  3. Osmund Bopearachchi, 2007, Some observations on the chronology of the early Kushans
  4. Dobbins (1971).
  5. Kim, Hyun Jin. The Huns. Routledge. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-317-34090-4.
  6. Hugh Kennedy (2010). The Great Arab Conquests: How the Spread of Islam Changed the World We Live In. 128: Hachette UK. p. 448. ISBN 9780297865599.
  7. Jump up to:ab c “AN OUTLINE OF THE HISTORY OF PERSIA DURING THE LAST TWO CENTURIES (A.D. 1722-1922)”Edward G. Browne. London: Packard Humanities Institute. p. 29. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
  8. “AN OUTLINE OF THE HISTORY OF PERSIA DURING THE LAST TWO CENTURIES (A.D. 1722-1922)”. Edward G. Browne. London: Packard Humanities Institute. p. 30. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
  9. “AN OUTLINE OF THE HISTORY OF PERSIA DURING THE LAST TWO CENTURIES (A.D. 1722-1922)”. Edward G. Browne. London: Packard Humanities Institute. p. 31. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
  10. “AN OUTLINE OF THE HISTORY OF PERSIA DURING THE LAST TWO CENTURIES (A.D. 1722-1922)”. Edward G. Browne. London: Packard Humanities Institute. p. 33. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
  11. “Calendars”. Encyclopædia Iranica. 1990.
  12. Civallero, Edgardo (2007). “When memory is turn into ashes” (PDF). Acta Academia. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  13. Censorship of historical thought: a world guide, 1945–2000, Antoon de Baets
  14. “Why Did the United States Invade Afghanistan?”. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  15. “United Nations Security Council” (PDF). UN. Naval Postgraduate School. December 5, 2001. Retrieved October 6, 2010.